Current Affairs

Global Climate Report 2023:

Global Climate Report 2023:

The Global Climate Report for 2023, issued by the World Meteorological Organization (WMO), verifies that 2023 registered the highest temperatures ever recorded.The report underscores concerning trends in various climate metrics, including unprecedented levels of greenhouse gases, surface temperatures, ocean warming and acidification, sea level elevation, Antarctic sea ice reduction, and glacier retreat.

Key Observations:

Global Temperature: The average global near-surface temperature in 2023 was 1.45 ± 0.12 °C above pre-industrial levels (1850–1900), setting a new record in the 174-year observational history. Prior record-holders were 2016 at 1.29 ± 0.12 °C and 2020 at 1.27 ± 0.13 °C above the pre-industrial average.

Warmest Decade: The decade from 2014 to 2023 saw the highest 10-year average global temperature, standing at 1.20 ± 0.12 °C above pre-industrial levels.

Monthly Records: From June to December, every month in 2023 set new records for warmth. In September 2023, there was a significant margin surpassing the previous global record for September by 0.46 to 0.54 °C.

Greenhouse Gas Levels: Concentrations of major greenhouse gases – carbon dioxide, methane, and nitrous oxide – hit record highs in 2022, with real-time data indicating continued increases throughout 2023.

Oceanic Heat: Sea surface temperatures globally reached record highs from April onward, with July, August, and September experiencing particularly notable deviations. Regions such as the eastern North Atlantic, Gulf of Mexico, Caribbean, North Pacific, and vast areas of the Southern Ocean saw exceptional warmth.

Impact on Human Life and Ecosystems:

The WMO report underscores the severe consequences of climate change:

Extreme Weather Events: Heatwaves, floods, droughts, wildfires, and intensifying tropical cyclones caused significant destruction, disrupting lives for millions and resulting in substantial economic losses.

Marine Heatwaves: Nearly one-third of the global ocean experienced marine heatwaves on average each day in 2023, endangering crucial ecosystems and food supplies. By year-end, over 90% of the ocean had faced heatwave conditions at some point.

Glacier Retreat: Reference glaciers worldwide recorded unprecedented ice loss, driven by extreme melting in western North America and Europe, according to preliminary data.

Food Insecurity: Acute food insecurity doubled globally, rising from 149 million people before the COVID-19 pandemic to 333 million in 2023 across 78 monitored countries by the World Food Programme. Weather and climate extremes exacerbated this crisis.

Displacement: Climate-related hazards continued to displace populations in 2023, highlighting how climate shocks undermine resilience and expose vulnerable communities to new risks.

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Global Climate Report 2023: